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Post: Interstate relations between Russia and Syria


Russia and Syria flags. archive photo

MOSCOW, March 15 – RIA Novosti. Negotiations between Russia and Syria’s President Vladimir Putin and Bashar Assad will be held in the Kremlin on Wednesday.

Below is a summary of interstate relations between the two countries.

Diplomatic relations between the USSR and Syria were established in July 1944. now they established On the basic Soviet-Syrian treaty of friendship and cooperation of 8 October 1980.

Russian-Syrian ties are traditionally friendly.

After the “Arab Spring” March 2011 The internal political crisis in Syria has reached the stage of armed conflict. In the republic, extremism took extreme forms. Threats from resident terrorists in Syria appeared it crosses the borders not only of this country, but also of the entire Middle East and North Africa region.

On September 30, 2015, the head of the Kremlin administration, Sergei Ivanov, reported that Assad sought military assistance from Russia. Putin submitted a proposal to the Federation Council for the adoption of a resolution on allowing the contingent of the Russian Armed Forces to be used abroad. The Federation Council unanimously supported him.

It was announced that the military purpose of the operation was air support of the Syrian government forces in the fight against the terrorist organization “Islamic State” * (IG *, banned in Russia).

On December 6, 2017, Putin announced the complete defeat of ISIS* on both sides of the Euphrates in Syria. Active phase of the military operation of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation continued until 11 December 2017.

Currently, large-scale active fighting in Syria has been completed. Most of the Russian army has already withdrawn from the republic, but part of the group remains in the country indefinitely to fight terrorists. More than 63,000 Russian military personnel have participated in the operation since 2015, more than 100 people dead.

The first official visit of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to the Syrian Arab Republic took place on 10-11 May 2010.

11 December 2017, at Khmeimim airbase, Putin and Assad to meet With the Russian and Syrian army involved in the counter-terrorism operation in Syria.

On January 7, 2020, Putin visited Damascus for the first time. Together with Assad, he visited the command post of the Russian Armed Forces, where heads of state listened to reports from the army. Afterwards, bilateral meetings of the delegations were held. Presidents then toured the Umayyad Mosque, Putin visit In the Orthodox Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, where she spoke with the Patriarch of Antioch and all John X of the East.

In the past years, Assad has repeatedly visited Russia for study visits – in October 2015, November 2017 May 2018 and also September 2021.

Heads of state regularly communicate by phone. last speech took place February 6, 2023.

Damascus in 2022 expression Full support for Russia’s special military operation in Ukraine.

Recent political interaction has mainly focused on the discussion of the situation in and around Syria and the issues of an intra-Syrian settlement.

Russia, along with Turkey and Iran, acts as the guarantor of the ceasefire in Syria. Countries started the “Astana” negotiation process. Thanks to him, temporarily, created and de-escalation zones exist to achieve a sustainable ceasefire, improve the humanitarian situation and begin to rebuild the destroyed social and economic infrastructure.

The last meetings of the “Astana” format were held in Astana, Kazakhstan, on 22-23 November 2022. The delegations of the guarantor countries, representatives of the Syrian government and opposition and the UN participated in the 19th consultation round. The parties agreed to hold the 20th international meeting on Syria in the first half of 2023 in Astana.

Since the beginning of the crisis in Syria, the late Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the former Foreign Minister of the republic, has repeatedly visited Russia. Walid Muallem. Faisal Mikdad, who was appointed as the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in November 2020 and previously served as the First Deputy Minister, made his first working visit to Moscow in December 2020 as the new head of the foreign ministry. 17 December 2020 took place Meeting with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov.

On February 19-22, 2022, Mikdad visited Russia again. 21 February Lavrov and Mikdad afflicted extensive negotiations on international and bilateral issues. On February 22, PA Foreign Minister Valdai spoke on the website of the International Discussion Club.

On August 23, Mikdad visited Moscow again. spent Negotiations with Lavrov

The next meeting of Lavrov and Mikdad afflicted On the sidelines of the 77th session of the UN General Assembly on September 23 in New York (USA). Lavrov and Mikdad to meet On the “edges” of the negotiating platforms and by phone to resolve the situation in Syria. last phone call took place 27 December 2022.

A Russian inter-ministerial delegation headed by Alexander Lavrentiev, the Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation for Syrian settlement, regularly visits Syria. In October 2022, a delegation visited Damascus. Syrian President Bashar Assad received a delegation.

In November 2021, the head of the Russian Investigative Committee, Alexander Bastrykin, visited Syria on a study trip. He met with Ali Mamluk, head of the state’s National Security Bureau, and Ahmed Al-Sayed, the Syrian Minister of Justice.

Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu has repeatedly visited Syria. Thus, on February 15, 2022, Shoigu made a study trip to Damascus, where he would meet with Syrian President Bashar Assad.

On December 28, 2022, a meeting of an expert was held in Moscow, during which the main areas were identified for the continuation of joint work between the defense ministers of Russia, Turkey and Syria, as well as the heads of the intelligence services. mechanism its coordination.

Change of authority via the parliament line is supported. In December 2021, a delegation of State Duma deputies headed by Dmitry Sablin, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Defense Committee, went to Syria. The parliamentary delegation was received by Syrian President Bashar Assad.

On March 30, 2022, the joint extended meeting of the Federation Council Cooperation Group with the PA People’s Council was held via videoconference. at the event accepted The participation of Konstantin Kosachev, Deputy Chairman of the Federation Council.

According to the Russian Federal Customs Service, in 2021 the trade turnover between Russia and Syria amounted to about $ 606 million. export – approximately $594 million, import – about 12 million dollars.

The basis of Russia’s exports is cereals, and its imports are fruits and nuts; salt; sulfur; earth and stone; plaster materials, lime and cement.
The main products of Russian exports to Syria in 2022 were wheat and meslin (mixture of soft wheat and rye) – their share from January to September 2022 amount of over 77%.

The Russian-Syrian intergovernmental commission has been working since 1993. The last 12th meeting of the IPC was held on 23-25 ​​December 2019 in Moscow. As a result, it was signed. agreement As part of the Green Corridor project, which facilitates the simplification of customs procedures for Syrian agricultural products.

In 2020, the Syrian Arab Republic Trade Representative of the Russian Federation was established.

The Russian Federation is currently helping to restore Syria’s oil and gas infrastructure. On the territory of the Arab Republic, Russian economic operators are implementing their projects. in them to contain OOO STG Engineering and OOO VO Technopromexport.

Russian company since 2017 “european police“.

In December 2019, Russian companies Velada and Mercury signed three contracts with the Syrian Parliament for exploration, drilling and oil production in central and eastern Syria. In 2021, the Syrian government approved a contract for oil exploration in the Mediterranean off Tartus with the Russian company Capital Limited.

Russian investments attract phosphate. In April 2018, a 50-year contract was approved for Russian company Stroytransgaz Logistics to extract phosphate ores from the Sharqiya mines in Palmyra in central Syria. In April 2019, a two-year contract was signed with Stroytransgaz for the management and reconstruction of the port of Tartus, the cost of the project exceeds 500 million dollars. Also Stroytransgaz Done A few projects in Syria such as the Arab Gas Line, the Central Region Gas Power Plant and the Twaynan Gas Power Plant on the administrative border between Homs and Raqqa.

Russia provides humanitarian aid to the Syrian people affected by armed conflict. Free Russian milled wheat was delivered to PA in 2016, 2017, 2019-2020.
Russia is actively helping Syria in solving the problem of refugees and internally displaced persons.

Between the Russian and Antioch Orthodox Churches to exist close relationship. Contacts are established between representatives of churches. Syria in January 2023 visit Metropolitan Anthony of Volokolamsk, Head of the Department for External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate.

between countries since 1995 valid Intergovernmental agreement on cultural and scientific cooperation.

in Russian universities educated More than 2,000 Syrian citizens. The plan of the Government of the Russian Federation for the admission of foreign citizens to study at Russian educational institutions within the framework of the quota for Syrian citizens for the academic year 2022/23 provided 759 scholarships.
In October 2022, a delegation from the Russian Ministry of Education and Science paid a working visit to the Syrian Arab Republic. As a result of the trip, scientific and educational institutions that are part of the delegation signed agreements and memorandums of cooperation with universities and scientific organizations in Syria, including the North Caucasus Federal University and Al-Baath University and Damascus University, Moscow State University of Technology. STANKIN”, Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (HIAST), South Seas Institute of Biology, Al-Baas and Tishrin Universities etc.
In early October 2019, a group of Russian scientists in Syria completed a study of the monuments to create two computer projects of Palmyra’s attractions, which they then donated to the future Palmyra Museum. During the visit of State Hermitage General Director Mikhail Piotrovsky to Damascus in November 2019, a Cooperation Agreement was signed with the PA General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums, providing for the restoration of Syrian cultural monuments. The aforementioned Syrian agency signed a similar document with the Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In March 2022, the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. A memorandum of understanding on the restoration of the Palmyra Triumphal Arch was signed between the St. Petersburg Institute of Material Cultural History and the Syria Main Directorate of Antiquities and Museums.

* A terrorist organization banned in Russia.

Source: Ria

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