March 27 is the Day of the National Guard of the established Russian Federation. presidential decree RF dated January 16, 2017. To preserve the continuity of military traditions, the date of the celebration coincides with the day formerly called the Day of Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. created units National Guard of the Russian Federation, destined maintaining law and order, ensuring internal security, protecting critical facilities.
generally accepted date of birth Armed formations of the army type, providing internal security of Russia, on March 27 (old style) 1811, by the decree of Emperor Alexander I, regular provincial companies and teams were moved to provincial capitals and internal military battalions. from them guards were formed, which became one of the most important parts of the state’s security system.
The internal guard ensured the constant renewal of the army on the ground, the maintenance of order in the settlements, facilitated the escort of the flow of exiles and convicts. Organizationally, it consisted of internal garrison (provincial) battalions and county handicapped brigades forming the Separate Internal Guard, which existed from 1816 until 1864, when its functions were transferred to local troops. In 1886 they formed escort teams that formed the empire’s escort guards. Local troops and escort guards They were part of the security system of the Russian state and were responsible for the internal security of the empire.
After the October Revolution of 1917, the Soviet government created its own body of protection and protection. with the Red Army unions were formed auxiliary (or special) purpose, which includes armed formations of various divisions in need of combat power. It also included the troops of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (VChK), subordinate to the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR. founded in 1918 from detachments under the Cheka and its local bodies to ensure the internal security of the state. On January 1, 1919, the Corps was renamed the troops of the Cheka.
Decree of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Defense Council On May 28, 1919, the Cheka units were combined with other auxiliary units into the internal guard of the republic (VOHR). Subsequently, the VOKHR troops were repeatedly reorganized (since 1920 – the internal service troops (VNUS), since 1922 – the troops of the State Political Administration (GPU) under the RSFSR People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD), since 1923 – People’s Commissars of the USSR) Special State Political Administration (OGPU) troops, subordinate to the Council of the Special State Political Administration (OGPU), since 1934 – internal security of the USSR NKVD, since 1937 – internal troops of the USSR NKVD ), but their task remained the same – including from external threats to the population protect from any threat. OGPU troops in 1927, along with other missions entrusted protection of industrial enterprises and facilities that are of great importance for the defense of the country.
During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) formations and units of the NKVD fought with the enemy in the border areas, defended Moscow and Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), Brest Fortress, Kiev, Odessa, Voronezh, Stalingrad (now Volgograd), the North Caucasus. , fought heavy battles on the Kursk Bulge. At the same time, they provided effective protection of thousands of objects, tens of thousands of kilometers of communications, as well as the rear of the army, which made it possible to disrupt the massive influence of German sabotage groups. NKVD troops played an important role in the deployment of the partisan movement in the territory occupied by the enemy. One of the tasks of the internal troops during the war years was to provide radio measures against the enemy. NKVD troops they also garrisoned in liberated areas, guarded railways, military factories, and other important facilities, escorted and protected prisoners of war, fought banditry, and provided high-frequency communications to the government; high level of state and military administration during the war years.
In addition, they provided the activities of three international conferences of heads of state who were members of the anti-Hitler coalition (Tehran – in 1943, Yalta and Potsdam – in 1945). The personnel of the NKVD troops reliably guarded the conference grounds, the routes of movement of government delegations.
After the end of the war, internal troops were part of the country’s various power departments. Since 1946, they were part of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, which was formed instead of the NKVD of the USSR. Later, from 1947, only internal troops were transferred to the USSR Ministry of State Security (MGB), and after the merger of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the MGB into one department in 1953 – again to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. USSR. After the abolition of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in 1960, formations and units were transferred to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the republic. Since 1962, they were part of the Ministries for the Protection of Public Order (MOOP) of the Union republics. Since 1966, the internal troops were part of the formed union-republican MOOP of the USSR, which in 1968 was transformed into the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR.
since 1946 they were also entrusted with the protection of research institutions, nuclear industry enterprises and rocket science. For this, special command offices were created, on the basis of which later special units of the internal troops appeared. In 1966, special motorized police units were created as part of the internal troops.
Internal troops protected the population from natural and man-made disasters, joined in 1957 at the Mayak plant, in 1986 after the accidents at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. In 1979-1989 they took part in resolving international problems on the territory of Afghanistan, and in 1988-1991 they were tasked with eliminating the consequences of ethnic conflicts in Central Asia, Transcaucasia and Transnistria.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, formations and military units of internal troops stationed on Russian territory were subordinated to the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs. They continued to perform their service and combat duties: they participated in the maintenance of public order, ensured public safety and took a state of emergency; protected major government facilities and private cargo, correctional labor institutions; Accompanied convicts and detainees.
At the end of the XX – the beginning of the XXI century main purpose Internal troops began to counter internal threats to national security, namely attempts to overthrow the constitutional order by force, the activities of illegal armed groups and terrorism.
With the decree of Russian President Vladimir Putin dated April 5, 2016, in order to increase the effectiveness of countering modern challenges and threats, to ensure state and public security, and to protect human and citizen rights and freedoms. created Federal Service of the National Guard of the Russian Federation (Rosguard).
The foundation of the new power structure It became the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The structure of the Russian Guard also included the governing bodies and units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for control in the field of arms trafficking, special security activities, special rapid response units (SOBR) and mobile special forces (OMON). regional internal affairs bodies, Special Forces Emergency Response and Aviation Center of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, aviation department of the ministry. The composition of the Russian Guard is also entry canine department of the main headquarters of the internal troops, the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Protection” and the licensing and permitting service. At the beginning of 2017, the Industrial Facilities Security Department of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation was subordinated to the Okhrana, the Federal State Unitary Enterprise of the Russian Guard. From the beginning of 2018, controlled firing of firearms was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Russian Guard.
As a result, the National Guard Unified There are two fully functional blocks in its structure. These are special and operational forces as a force component to directly counter acts of internal aggression. Units that provide direct protection of facilities in various sectors of the economy, as well as units that perform the functions of state control over other security activities in the country and the circulation of weapons, including those used in the activities of non-state security structures.
Army General Viktor Zolotov.
National Guard Troops – the military organization of the state.It is designed, among other things, to solve law enforcement problems. This specificity largely determines the nature of service and combat activities. They take part in the maintenance of public order, ensure public safety; protect important state facilities, private cargo, communication facilities in accordance with lists approved by the government of the Russian Federation; participate in the fight against terrorism and extremism; take part in ensuring the legal regime of the state of emergency, martial law, anti-terrorist operation; as well as in the territorial defense of the Russian Federation; provide assistance to the border agencies of the federal security service in guarding the country’s state border; units and departmental security units of legal entities with special legal duties to ensure compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of arms trafficking and in the field of private security activities, as well as ensuring the safety of facilities of the fuel and energy complex, carrying out federal state control (supervision) over security activities. on them in charge of providing Security of senior officials of the constituent entities of the country (heads of the highest executive bodies of state power of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation) and other persons, by decision of the President of the Russian Federation.
National Guard units make significant contributions to the fight against terrorism, extremism and organized crime. Them fulfill the duties Along with the Joint Forces Group in the North Caucasus, a limited contingent in the Syrian Arab Republic. soldiers in Syria Ensuring the safety of the humanitarian aid activities of the Russian National Guard, seizing weapons, ammunition and explosives, performing special tasks make a significant contribution to the stabilization of the situation in the country.
In the special operation for the disarmament and demilitarization of Ukraine, which began on February 24, 2022, the Russian Guards perform all the tasks assigned to them together with the Russian Armed Forces. especially, they to join They are engaged in the delivery of humanitarian aid to the residents of Ukraine, the protection of the Zaporozhye nuclear power plant and the neutralization of unexploded mines, artillery shells and improvised explosives.
The material has been prepared based on information from RIA Novosti and open sources.
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